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Stroke:权威研究——PM2.5的确损伤大脑

来源:生物谷 2015-04-27 09:28

2015年4月27日 讯 /生物谷BIOON/ --空气污染,甚至是适度水平的污染都被认为是增加中风风险的因子,近日,一篇发表于国际杂志Stroke上的研究论文中,来自波士顿大学医学院等处的研究人员通过研究发现,长期暴露于空气污染中会促进大脑结构的损伤,并且损伤中老年个体的认知功能。

文章中研究者对900多名弗兰明汉心脏研究中心的参与者进行研究发现了个体大脑结构变小及隐秘脑梗塞的发病原因,隐秘脑梗塞是一种“沉默”的缺血性中风发作,主要是因为供给大脑的血管发生阻塞所引发;研究者评估了参与者生活距离主要道路干道的距离,并且利用卫星成像分析了个体长时间暴露于环境细颗粒物的情况,即PM2.5,这些颗粒物有多种来源,比如工厂、发电厂等,其可以被人体进入肺部,有研究表明PM2.5和心血管事件的发病风险直接相关,比如心脏病发作和中风。

Elissa Wilker教授指出,这项研究首次揭示了空气污染和个体大脑结构的关联,研究表明空气污染和老化大脑的潜在损伤效应直接相关,尤其对无痴呆症或中风个体影响更大。本文中的参与者均为60岁及以上未患痴呆症和中风的老年个体,研究者发现,空气中的PM2.5仅增加2μg/立方米就很有可能使得个体患隐秘脑梗塞以及大脑容量减少,这种效应相当于大约一年的大脑衰老情况。

相关研究结果对于帮助研究者了解大脑的改变进程以及揭示空气污染影响大脑老化的机体提供了新的研究思路和线索,空气中PM2.5增加2μg/立方米就会使得个体患中风的风险增加46%。

后期研究者计划去研究长期的空气污染对个体大脑衰老的影响,研究者希望通过更多深入的研究来有效揭示空气污染和个体大脑衰老及疾病发生之间的关系,为后期开发预防性或治疗性的措施提供一定的基础和思路。(生物谷Bioon.com)

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Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure

Elissa H. Wilker, ScD, Sarah R. Preis, ScD, Alexa S. Beiser, PhD, Philip A. Wolf, MD, Rhoda Au, PhD, Itai Kloog, PhD, Wenyuan Li, MS, Joel Schwartz, PhD, Petros Koutrakis, PhD, Charles DeCarli, MD, Sudha Seshadri, MD and Murray A. Mittleman, MD, DrPH

Background and Purpose—Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, but whether it is related to structural changes in the brain is not clear. We examined the associations between residential long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and markers of brain aging using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods—Framingham Offspring Study participants who attended the seventh examination were at least 60 years old and free of dementia and stroke were included. We evaluated associations between exposures (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and residential proximity to major roadways) and measures of total cerebral brain volume, hippocampal volume, white matter hyperintensity volume (log-transformed and extensive white matter hyperintensity volume for age), and covert brain infarcts. Models were adjusted for age, clinical covariates, indicators of socioeconomic position, and temporal trends. Results—A 2-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with −0.32% (95% confidence interval, −0.59 to −0.05) smaller total cerebral brain volume and 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.94) higher odds of covert brain infarcts. Living further away from a major roadway was associated with 0.10 (95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.19) greater log-transformed white matter hyperintensity volume for an interquartile range difference in distance, but no clear pattern of association was observed for extensive white matter. Conclusions—Exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5 was associated with smaller total cerebral brain volume, a marker of age-associated brain atrophy, and with higher odds of covert brain infarcts. These findings suggest that air pollution is associated with insidious effects on structural brain aging even in dementia- and stroke-free persons.

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