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PNAS:“软木塞味”葡萄酒的化学物质可能抑制嗅觉

来源:EurekAlert!中文 2013-09-17 11:01

“软木塞味”葡萄酒典型的发霉、不愉快的味道和芳香是因为被称为2,4,6-三氯苯甲醚(简称为TCA)的化学污染物的存在而导致的,而且长久以来被认为来源于TCA固有的不愉快气味,但是一项研究提示TCA反而可能通过抑制嗅觉细胞的气味探测从而导致一位顾客感受到这类味道。为了研究软木塞污染背后的机制,Hiroko Takeuchi及其同事监测了蝾螈的单个嗅觉细胞对暴露在TCA中做出响应的嗅觉探测机制的活动。这组作者报告说,TCA不是引起气味感受典型的兴奋响应,而是抑制了气味探测机制,甚至是在极低浓度下也是如此。此外,让20人参与的一系列实验表明,当葡萄酒被TCA以及导致不愉快的味道的其他物质污染的时候,葡萄酒的原始气味减少了。这组作者发现TCA也出现在了一大批因为气味流失而评价不良但是没有发霉味的食品与饮料中。这组作者说,这些发现提示TCA可能通过抑制嗅觉从而让葡萄酒和其他产品的味道和芳香降级。(生物谷 Bioon.com)

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PNAS  doi: 10.1073/pnas.1300764110

2,4,6-Trichloroanisole is a potent suppressor of olfactory signal transduction

Hiroko Takeuchia,b,1, Hiroyuki Katoc, and Takashi Kurahashia,b

We investigated the sensitivity of single olfactory receptor cells to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), a compound known for causing cork taint in wines. Such off-flavors have been thought to originate from unpleasant odor qualities evoked by contaminants. However, we here show that TCA attenuates olfactory transduction by suppressing cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, without evoking odorant responses. Surprisingly, suppression was observed even at extremely low (i.e., attomolar) TCA concentrations. The high sensitivity to TCA was associated with temporal integration of the suppression effect. We confirmed that potent suppression by TCA and similar compounds was correlated with their lipophilicity, as quantified by the partition coefficient at octanol/water boundary (pH 7.4), suggesting that channel suppression is mediated by a partitioning of TCA into the lipid bilayer of plasma membranes. The rank order of suppression matched human recognition of off-flavors: TCA equivalent to 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, which is much greater than 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Furthermore, TCA was detected in a wide variety of foods and beverages surveyed for odor losses. Our findings demonstrate a potential molecular mechanism for the reduction of flavor.

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