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Plant Cell:韩方普等植物新着丝粒形成及表观遗传学研究获进展

来源:中科院遗传发育所 2013-06-20 00:38

近日,来自中科院遗传发育所韩方普实验室在植物新着丝粒形成及表观遗传学研究去的了进展,研究者长期从事植物着丝粒的表观遗传学研究,曾在植物中首次发现着丝粒的失活现象(PNAS,2006)并初步分析失活的B染色体着丝粒具有不分离(nondisjunction)的功能(Plant Cell,2007a)。他们还发现玉米小染色体的着丝粒提早分离与着丝粒保护蛋白无关(Plant Cell,2007b),进一步发现失活的着丝粒在一定条件下可以恢复活性(Plant Cell, 2009)。

该实验室首次在玉米第三号染色体上发现染色体的片段可以形成功能的着丝粒但不含有传统的着丝粒重复序列(PNAS,2013)。最近该实验室利用玉米第9号染色体的变异材料,发现玉米9号染色体短臂的一段723kb的基因组序列参与着丝粒的形成,DNA甲基化分析发现这段与CENH3紧密结合的序列在原初的染色体臂上已经达到着丝粒区的DNA甲基化水平,形成新的着丝粒后其DNA甲基化水平没有明显变化。

该研究结果于2013年6月14日在Plant Cell在线发表(1105/tpc.113.110015),韩方普实验室博士生张冰和工作人员吕振玲及王秀杰实验室博士生庞军玲为本文的共同第一作者。本项工作同王秀杰实验室共同合作完成。该研究得到国家自然科学基金委重点项目和科技部重大研究计划及中国科学院的资助。(生物谷Bioon.com)

Formation of a Functional Maize Centromere after Loss of Centromeric Sequences and Gain of Ectopic Sequences

Bing Zhanga,b,1, Zhenling Lva,1, Junling Pangb,c,1, Yalin Liua,b, Xiang Guoa,b, Shulan Fua, Jun Lia, Qianhua Donga,b, Hua-Jun Wuc, Zhi Gaod, Xiu-Jie Wangc,1 and Fangpu Hana,1,20000-0001-8393-3575

The maize (Zea mays) B centromere is composed of B centromere–specific repeats (ZmBs), centromere-specific satellite repeats (CentC), and centromeric retrotransposons of maize (CRM). Here we describe a newly formed B centromere in maize, which has lost CentC sequences and has dramatically reduced CRM and ZmBs sequences, but still retains the molecular features of functional centromeres, such as CENH3, H2A phosphorylation at Thr-133, H3 phosphorylation at Ser-10, and Thr-3 immunostaining signals. This new centromere is stable and can be transmitted to offspring through meiosis. Anti-CENH3 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing revealed that a 723-kb region from the short arm of chromosome 9 (9S) was involved in the formation of the new centromere. The 723-kb region, which is gene poor and enriched for transposons, contains two abundant DNA motifs. Genes in the new centromere region are still transcribed. The original 723-kb region showed a higher DNA methylation level compared with native centromeres but was not significantly changed when it was involved in new centromere formation. Our results indicate that functional centromeres may be formed without the known centromere-specific sequences, yet the maintenance of a high DNA methylation level seems to be crucial for the proper function of a new centromere.

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