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PNAS:压力响应的个体差异

来源:EurekAlert! 2010-02-24 10:22

根据一项动物研究,对长期压力做出响应的神经元的发育和生存可能有助于解释为何一些人更容易患抑郁症和创伤后应激障碍综合征。长期压力已知会导致一些精神疾病,但是尚不清楚一些人比另外一些人更容易产生这些症状的神经基础。

Amelia Eisch及其同事研究了大脑的海马区——对学习和记忆具有重要性的区域——并探索了神经形成对受压力影响严重的大脑功能的作用。这组科学家让一组小鼠接触社会压力,然后鉴别出那些正常互动的小鼠以及显示出逃避社会行为的小鼠。所有的小鼠都显示出了最初接触压力后在颗粒下区(SGZ)细胞产生的减少。然而,一个月后,这组科学家发现此前显示出逃避社会的小鼠在SGZ的神经元存活增强。这组科学家然后在两组小鼠接触压力之前抑制了SGZ的神经元的产生和存活,这减少了对逃避社会等压力引发的行为的易感性。这组作者说,压力消失后的神经元生长增强很可能对个人在响应长期压力时候的差异有贡献。(生物谷Bioon.com)

生物谷推荐原始出处:

PNAS February 22, 2010, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910072107

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is functionally important for stress-induced social avoidance

Diane C. Lagacea,b, Michael H. Donovana, Nathan A. DeCarolisa, Laure A. Farnbaucha, Shveta Malhotraa, Olivier Bertona,c, Eric J. Nestlera,d, Vaishnav Krishnana, and Amelia J. Eischa,1

aDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9070;
bDepartment of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8M5;
cDepartment of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Philadelphia, PA 19104; and
dDepartment of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029

The long-term response to chronic stress is variable, with some individuals developing maladaptive functioning, although other “resilient” individuals do not. Stress reduces neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ), but it is unknown if stress-induced changes in neurogenesis contribute to individual vulnerability. Using a chronic social defeat stress model, we explored whether the susceptibility to stress-induced social avoidance was related to changes in SGZ proliferation and neurogenesis. Immediately after social defeat, stress-exposed mice (irrespective of whether they displayed social avoidance) had fewer proliferating SGZ cells labeled with the S-phase marker BrdU. The decrease was transient, because BrdU cell numbers were normalized 24 h later. The survival of BrdU cells labeled before defeat stress was also not altered. However, 4 weeks later, mice that displayed social avoidance had more surviving dentate gyrus neurons. Thus, dentate gyrus neurogenesis is increased after social defeat stress selectively in mice that display persistent social avoidance. Supporting a functional role for adult-generated dentate gyrus neurons, ablation of neurogenesis via cranial ray irradiation robustly inhibited social avoidance. These data show that the time window after cessation of stress is a critical period for the establishment of persistent cellular and behavioral responses to stress and that a compensatory enhancement in neurogenesis is related to the long-term individual differences in maladaptive responses to stress.

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