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Trends in Immunology:天然免疫反应需要T细胞参与

来源:生物物理研究所 2009-02-06 11:06

中科院生物物理所感染免疫中心唐宏研究员和傅阳心教授在2009年月1月刊的《免疫学趋势》(Trends  in  Immunology)杂志上以Do adaptive immune cells suppress or activate innate immunity?为题,系统阐述了他们近来提出的“天然免疫反应需要T细胞参与”  的新理论。

经典的免疫学理论认为天然免疫反应启动获得性免疫,而获得性免疫随后进一步放大天然免疫效应,二者的合作与平衡才能清除入侵病原,起到免疫保护的作用。该实验室近期的研究结果表明(原文见Nature Medicine, 2007;评述见Nature Medicine, 2007;  Nature Reviews in Immunology, 2007; Nature China, 2008),原先关于区分天然免疫和获得性免疫的界限可能并不那么清楚,T细胞其实也参与天然免疫反应并维持其稳态。经典理论认为天然免疫和获得性免疫反应的双重低下是早产儿容易死于急性感染的主要原因。该实验室的研究发现,实际上,在感染早期获得性免疫细胞对于天然免疫反应具有负调控的作用,从而有效的将天然免疫反应的强度控制在一定的水平内而不至对机体造成免疫损伤。新生鼠或早产儿由于获得性免疫低下,天然免疫炎性反应无法得到有效控制,这种“炎性因子风暴”才是致死原因。因此,获得性免疫一方面抑制感染早期的炎症反应,另一方面在感染后期行使病原特异性清除功能,两者缺一不可。

这个新理论对于深入了解病毒性感染的炎症反应和病毒清除机理,控制免疫低下病人(新生儿、老年人、放化疗癌症病人、器官移植患者或艾滋病人)机会性感染具有极高的指导价值。(生物谷Bioon.com)

生物谷推荐原始出处:

Trends in Immunology Volume 30, Issue 1, January 2009,doi:10.1016/j.it.2008.10.003

Do adaptive immune cells suppress or activate innate immunity?

Jie Zhao1, Xuanming Yang1, Sogyong L. Auh2, Kwang Dong Kim3, Hong Tang1,  and Yang-Xin Fu1, 2,

1Center for Infection and Immunity and National Key Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Rd, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
2Department of Pathology, Committee of Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
3Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701, Korea

Current dogma holds that the innate immune system primes the adaptive immune system in response to infection, which in turn amplifies innate responses in a positive loop to effectively control pathogens. Therefore, it is accepted in most cases that T-cell deficient hosts die of acute infection because of the impaired ability of the innate immune system to control pathogens. Recent studies, however, reveal that adaptive immune cells actively dampen initial innate responses. In contrast to current understanding, there is now evidence that an insufficient number of T cells results in loss of control of innate immune responses. This raises new questions regarding the, as of yet underappreciated, role of the adaptive immune system in early infection and inflammation.

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