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多吃花生和坚果 降低多种疾病风险

来源:生物谷 2015-06-15 09:52

                                                                    

2015年6月15日讯 /生物谷BIOON/ --近日,一项发表在国际学术期刊international journal of epidemiology的研究证实花生和坚果的摄入与低死亡率之间存在一定关联,但花生酱没有类似的保护作用。每天摄入最少10g坚果或花生的人,死于几种主要风险疾病的概率低于不吃花生和坚果的人。
 
该研究指出死亡率下降最明显的是呼吸道疾病,神经退行性疾病以及糖尿病,随后是癌症和心血管疾病,并且花生和坚果的这种保护作用在男性和女性之间是等同的。同时,花生起到的保护作用与坚果一样明显,但花生酱与死亡率并无明显关联。
 
这项研究开始于1986年,研究人员对55~69岁的120,000名荷兰居民进行了群组研究,其中既包括男性也包括女性,在研究中研究人员询问了研究对象关于花生,坚果和花生酱摄入的量和频率等问题,对花生和坚果的摄入量进行了评估。随后他们又对1986年之后的整体死亡率和特定疾病死亡率进行了分析。
 
结果显示花生和坚果摄入与心血管疾病导致的死亡之间存在显著性关联,从而证实了之前美国和亚洲的一些研究结论。除此之外,该项研究还发现除心血管疾病之外,花生和坚果的摄入还与癌症、糖尿病、呼吸道疾病和神经退行性疾病导致的死亡率下降存在显著性关联。
 
由于花生和坚果中包含多种营养物质,如单不饱和脂肪酸和多不饱和脂肪酸,多种维生素,纤维,抗氧化物和其他生物活性物质,可能对于降低死亡风险有一定作用。由于花生酱中添加了盐和植物油,同时还包含反式脂肪酸,因此有益物质的保护作用可能被盐和反式脂肪酸所抑制,并不能起到类似花生的保护作用。(生物谷Bioon.com)
 
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Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis
 
Piet A van den Brandt1,2,* and Leo J Schouten
 
Background: Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear.
 
Methods: We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120?852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies.
 
Results: Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1?<5, 5?<10 and 10+?g nuts/day with non-consumers, multivariable hazard ratios for total mortality were 0.88, 0.74 and 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89], respectively (Ptrend?=?0.003). Cause-specific hazard ratios comparing 10+ vs 0?g/day varied from 0.56 for neurodegenerative to 0.83 for cardiovascular disease mortality. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear dose-response relationships with mortality. Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality.
 
Conclusions: Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality.
 
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