来源：生物谷 2015-06-08 13:19
这项研究是与威尼斯的IRCCS San Camillo医院基金会合作开展的，研究发现，O型血的人与其它血型的人相比，如A、B或AB血型，大脑中有更多的灰质，从而保护他们不易得老年痴呆症。
来自Sheffield大学神经科学系的研究人员Matteo De Marco和Annalena Venneri教授，分析了189名健康志愿者的核磁共振成像结果。他们计算了这些志愿者大脑中的灰质含量，并研究了灰质量在不同血型间的差异。
研究结果发表在Brain Research Bulletin杂志上，即O型血的人们在小脑后部有更多的灰质。相比之下，A、B及AB血型的人们，有小量的灰质，在脑的颞部和边缘区域，包括左海马，此区域是老年痴呆症最早受损的大脑的部位之一。
Annalena Venneri教授补充道，"我们现在知道了大脑灰质量的明显差异，我们的发现也证实了临床上所观察到的。血型很可能影响了神经系统的发育。现在我们将研究这是如何和为什么发生的。" (生物谷Bioon.com)
生物谷推荐英文原文报道: Links found between blood type and risk of cognitive decline
‘O’ blood type is associated with larger grey-matter volumes in the cerebellum
Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system ‘AB’ individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by ‘O’ alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between ‘O’ and non-‘O’ adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in ‘O’ adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration.
A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contacted telephonically and enquired about their ABO blood type. Out of the 189 individuals who were able to retrieve and communicate this information, ‘O’ (n = 76) and ‘A’ adults (n = 65) were included in Model 1. In Model 2, all non-‘O’ (n = 113) were instead collapsed in a single group. Voxel-Based Morphometry analyses were carried out on three-dimensional T1-weighted scans, and between-sample t tests were run to compare the maps of grey-matter volumes of the subgroups of interest, controlling for major nuisance variables.
In Model 1, ‘O’ adults had larger grey-matter volumes in two symmetrical clusters within the posterior ventral portion of the cerebellum. This was confirmed in Model 2. Additionally, non-‘O’ adults showed lower volume values in temporal and limbic regions, including the left hippocampus.
The cerebellar clusters were located in regions previously found to be part of a network responsible for sensorimotor integration. It is speculated that the structural reductions seen in non-‘O’ adults might result in a susceptibility to down-regulation of this network. This occurrence is likely to intensify along the ageing process and may contribute to foster cognitive decline. Although Model 2 seems to suggest that having a ‘O’ blood type might play a role in protection against those conditions in which temporal and mediotemporal volumetric loss is observed (Alzheimer's disease), additional supporting evidence is needed.
A number of potential biological processes might sustain these between-group differences, including sensorimotor ontogenesis, hormonal function, and a regional impact of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. These findings identify the cerebellar tissue as a candidate for further studying ABO function, and support a general association between ABO blood type and variance in the development of the nervous system.