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PNAS:果糖比葡萄糖更能促进食欲

来源:生物谷 2015-05-20 13:51

 
2015年5月20日/生物谷BIOON/--我们食物中每天都有很多的糖类。其中最常见和可以直接消耗作为能量的是葡萄糖。而葡萄糖的一种同分异构体果糖,在食物(比如水果和蜂蜜)中也存在很大比例,而且成为了现代食品工业中常用的甜味添加剂,用在很多的饮料和其他制品中。在现代饮料中,如可口可乐和百事可乐中,早期使用的蔗糖添加剂都逐步为果糖取代了。

早期的研究表明,果糖与葡萄糖相比,对食欲的抑制性较弱,就是说果糖更能促进食欲。来自美国洛杉矶南加州大学的科学家们在《美国科学院院刊》刊文说,他们对比了果糖和葡萄糖对于脑部,激素水平以及食欲的差异。通过这些研究,他们表明了,食用果糖食物会激活脑部的一些区域,这些区域可能会鼓励人的进食。
他们找到了24个志愿者,把他们分为两组都进行脑部的功能性核磁共振成像测试,让他们分别进食果糖和葡萄糖。研究者先给志愿者看带有高糖食物的图片和非食物图片,然后再进行脑部的功能性核磁共振成像检查,接着在让他们对自己的饥饿程度和对食物渴望度打分。志愿者还被要求完成一个决定,就是让他们选择是立刻给予食物奖励,或者选择实验后的很长时间给他们金钱奖励。
 
在志愿者进食含有果糖或者葡萄糖的饮品后,在30分钟和60分钟后测试激素水平。他们发现,与葡萄糖相比,食用果糖,对血液中胰岛素含量增加影响不明显,而在脑部视觉皮层和皮层则对食物信号的反应比较强烈。与脑部成像结果一致的是,他们还发现了食用果糖会导致更强烈的饥饿感和对食物的渴望,并且愿意放弃金钱奖励,而转向马上就可以吃到的高糖食物。
果糖,相对于葡萄糖会更能引起脑部皮层的反应,进而增加食欲。然而这些影响会不会与性别,年龄以及身体状况相关仍需要进一步研究。(生物谷Bioon.com)
 

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Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive responses to food cues and decisions for food rewards

 

Prior studies suggest that fructose compared with glucose may be a weaker suppressor of appetite, and neuroimaging research shows that food cues trigger greater brain reward responses in a fasted relative to a fed state. We sought to determine the effects of ingesting fructose versus glucose on brain, hormone, and appetitive responses to food cues and food-approach behavior. Twenty-four healthy volunteers underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions with ingestion of either fructose or glucose in a double-blinded, random-order cross-over design. fMRI was performed while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods and nonfood items using a block design. After each block, participants rated hunger and desire for food. Participants also performed a decision task in which they chose between immediate food rewards and delayed monetary bonuses. Hormones were measured at baseline and 30 and 60 min after drink ingestion. Ingestion of fructose relative to glucose resulted in smaller increases in plasma insulin levels and greater brain reactivity to food cues in the visual cortex (in whole-brain analysis) and left orbital frontal cortex (in region-of-interest analysis). Parallel to the neuroimaging findings, fructose versus glucose led to greater hunger and desire for food and a greater willingness to give up long-term monetary rewards to obtain immediate high-calorie foods. These findings suggest that ingestion of fructose relative to glucose results in greater activation of brain regions involved in attention and reward processing and may promote feeding behavior.
 
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