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Nature:癌症抗药新发现 防止肿瘤复发有新招

来源:生物谷 2015-03-30 09:44

                                                                   

   
2015年3月30日讯 /生物谷BIOON/ --近日,著名国际学术期刊nature在线发表了美国科学家的一项最新研究进展,他们发现癌症靶向治疗药物会引起癌细胞产生分泌信号方面的变化,改变癌细胞生存微环境,最终导致肿瘤复发。这对于临床解决肿瘤抗药性以及癌症复发问题具有重要指导意义。
 
一直以来,癌症药物抵抗是限制临床应用激酶抑制剂靶向治疗癌症,提高治疗效率的主要因素。研究人员发现在人类和小鼠黑色素瘤以及人类肺腺癌细胞中,靶向BRAF,ALK和EGFR的激酶抑制剂会诱导细胞产生一个复杂的分泌信号调节网络。这种靶向治疗诱导的分泌信号会刺激产生药物抵抗的癌细胞克隆进一步生长,扩散和转移,并且促进药物敏感性肿瘤细胞存活,最终导致肿瘤的复发。
 
通过对机制研究发现,在经过激酶抑制剂vemurafenib处理的黑色素瘤细胞中,转录因子FRA1的表达下调会促进这种促肿瘤发展的分泌信号产生。研究人员对产生药物抵抗的黑色素瘤细胞进行原位转录组分析发现有多条信号通路发生激活,其中AKT通路发挥主要作用。通过对RAF和PI3K/AKT/mTOR两条信号通路同时进行阻断能够抑制具有药物抵抗特性的BRAF突变的人类黑色素瘤细胞生长,这表明药物联合治疗或许是对抗肿瘤复发的一种有效策略。
 
综上所述,这项研究表明对药物敏感性癌细胞进行药物治疗抑制癌基因功能会诱导细胞产生大量分泌信号方面的变化,帮助抗药性癌细胞克隆建立合适的肿瘤微环境,但研究人员也发现药物联合治疗对抗药性肿瘤具有明显抑制作用,或许对临床控制肿瘤复发具有重要指导意义。(生物谷Bioon.com)
 
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Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression
 
Anna C. Obenauf,Yilong Zou,Andrew L. Ji,Sakari Vanharanta,Weiping Shu,Hubing Shi, Xiangju Kong, Marcus C. Bosenberg,Thomas Wiesner,Neal Rosen, Roger S. Lo& Joan Massagué
 
Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1, 2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed human and mouse melanoma and human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The tumour-promoting secretome of melanoma cells treated with the kinase inhibitor vemurafenib is driven by downregulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of several signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and the PI(3)K/AKT/mTOR intracellular signalling pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant human melanoma, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy.
 
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