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Nature:还是天然食物好!食品添加剂会诱导炎症和代谢综合征

来源:生物谷 2015-02-27 15:29

2015年2月27日讯 /生物谷BIOON/-- 乳化剂(Emulsifiers)作为常用的食品添加剂,被用于加工食品以帮助保存食物质地,延长保质期。近日在Nature杂志在线发表的一篇最新报道肯定了我们对于食品添加剂的担心。Georgia State University生物医学研究所的研究人员发现乳化剂可改变肠道菌群的组成和位置,以诱导肠道炎症,促进炎症性肠疾病和代谢综合征。

炎性肠病(IBD)包括克罗恩病和溃疡性结肠炎,影响了数百万人的健康。代谢综合征是一组非常常见的与肥胖相关的疾病,可导致2型糖尿病,心血管和或肝脏疾病。IBD和代谢综合征的发病率自20世纪中期开始有了增加。“肠道菌群”是指100万亿个栖息在不同肠道位置细菌。IBD和代谢综合征中,肠道菌群通常都被扰乱。而研究人员调查发现食用乳化剂可能部分导致这种菌群紊乱,使得炎性疾病和代谢综合征的发生率增加。

研究人员用两种非常常用的乳化剂混入食物中喂养小鼠,包括聚山梨醇酯80(polysorbate 80)和羧甲基纤维素(carboxymethylcellulsose)。在乳化剂被广泛消化后,他们观察到,肠道菌群的组成发生了变化,这种变化更加的促炎症。改变的菌群有更强的消化和渗透肠道致密粘液层的能力,并且导致了细菌表达更多鞭毛和脂多糖,这可以激活免疫系统,激活促炎基因的表达。

在免疫系统已有异常的小鼠中,肠道菌群这些变化引发慢性结肠炎。与此相反,在正常的免疫系统小鼠中,菌群的变化主要诱导轻度肠道炎症和代谢综合症,其特征在于,更多的食物消耗,肥胖,高血糖和胰岛素抵抗。研究人员又检测了乳化剂激活的菌群对无菌小鼠的作用。乳化剂喂养过的小鼠的肠道菌群移植到到无菌小鼠后,引起了轻度炎症和代谢综合征。这已经足够表明乳化剂食用导致的菌群变化带来的影响。

该科研小组目前正在测试更多的乳化剂,调查乳化剂如何影响人类。如果在人体有类似的结果,这将表明这类食品添加剂在肥胖的盛行,各种慢性肠道炎症相关的疾病中确实扮演一定的角色。(生物谷Bioon.com)

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DOI: 10.1038/nature14232

Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome
Benoit Chassaing,Omry Koren,Julia K. Goodrich,Angela C. Poole,Shanthi Srinivasan, Ruth E. Ley& Andrew T. Gewirtz

Abstract
The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota–host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine1. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus–bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of processed foods and that can increase bacterial translocation across epithelia in vitro2, might be promoting the increase in inflammatory bowel disease observed since the mid-twentieth century3. Here we report that, in mice, relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential. Use of germ-free mice and faecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome. These results support the emerging concept that perturbed host–microbiota interactions resulting in low-grade inflammation can promote adiposity and its associated metabolic effects. Moreover, they suggest that the broad use of emulsifying agents might be contributing to an increased societal incidence of obesity/metabolic syndrome and other chronic inflammatory diseases.

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