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Geno Biol:家蝇全基因组测序可助科学家开发改善健康新疗法

来源:生物谷 2014-10-16 16:38

2014年10月16日 讯 /生物谷BIOON/ --家蝇或许是全世界范围内都有的害虫,但其基因组或许会为我们人类改善健康提供很多信息,近日,来自康奈尔大学的研究人员通过研究对家蝇全长为691Mb的基因组进行了测序分析,为后期进行害虫防治及利用其分解废物,进而为研究其和人类疾病的关联提供了一定的线索和思路,相关研究发表于国际杂志Genome Biology上。

全基因组的测序可以揭示出昆虫独有的免疫系统及解毒基因,为后期深入研究人类机体如何处理毒性物质及环境引发的疾病会带来一定的帮助。家蝇(Musca domestica)以人类和动物的排泄物为生,其对于科学界研究也非常重要,因为其扮演着垃圾处理者的角色,而且其也是人类100多种疾病的载体,包括肺结核、伤寒等疾病,每年仅光家蝇引发的儿童沙眼病例就多达600万。

由于家蝇与人类的生活非常密切,因此研究人员对其进行测序,以期待会对人类的健康带来帮助,文章的作者Jeff Scott表示,家蝇在很多领域都是科学家比较热衷于研究的对象,比如发育生物学、性分化领域研究、免疫学研究等,家蝇完整的基因组可以为研究人员提供很多意想不到的重要信息。

这项研究中研究人员对6只雌性家蝇进行了全基因组测序,结果产生了691Mb长的基因组序列,研究者将其同黑腹果蝇123Mb长的基因组进行对比研究揭示了家蝇的特殊基因,或为后期进行深入研究奠定了基础。

对比研究揭示家蝇的基因组中存在很多免疫力基因,而且其比黑腹果蝇基因组的多样性要高很多,揭示家蝇对人类疾病产生免疫力的机制或许可以帮助科学家们开发治疗人类疾病的新型疗法或者疫苗。研究者最后表示,家蝇的基因组包含有许多特殊的解毒基因,其可以产生帮助家蝇分解废弃物的蛋白质,因此这些基因的信息也可以帮助研究者们应用于人类之中来有效改善人类的机体健康。(生物谷Bioon.com)

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Genome of the house fly, Musca domestica L., a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment

Jeffrey G Scott1*, Wesley C Warren2, Leo W Beukeboom3, Daniel Bopp4, Andrew G Clark5, Sarah D Giers6, Monika Hediger4, Andrew K Jones7, Shinji Kasai1, Cheryl A Leichter1, Ming Li8, Richard P Meisel9, Patrick Minx2, Terence D Murphy10, David R Nelson11, William R Reid8, Frank D Rinkevich1, Hugh M Robertson6, Timothy B Sackton12, David B Sattelle13, Francoise Thibaud-Nissen14, Chad Tomlinson2, Louis van de Zande3, Kimberly KO Walden6, Richard K Wilson2 and Nannan Liu8

Background Adult house flies, Musca domestica L., are mechanical vectors of more than 100 devastating diseases that have severe consequences for human and animal health. House fly larvae play a vital role as decomposers of animal wastes, and thus live in intimate association with many animal pathogens. Results We have sequenced and analyzed the genome of the house fly using DNA from female flies. The sequenced genome is 691 Mb. Compared with Drosophila melanogaster, the genome contains a rich resource of shared and novel protein coding genes, a significantly higher amount of repetitive elements, and substantial increases in copy number and diversity of both the recognition and effector components of the immune system, consistent with life in a pathogen-rich environment. There are 146 P450 genes, plus 11 pseudogenes, in M. domestica, representing a significant increase relative to D. melanogaster and suggesting the presence of enhanced detoxification in house flies. Relative to D. melanogaster, M. domestica has also evolved an expanded repertoire of chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins, many associated with gustation. Conclusions This represents the first genome sequence of an insect that lives in intimate association with abundant animal pathogens. The house fly genome provides a rich resource for enabling work on innovative methods of insect control, for understanding the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, genetic adaptation to high pathogen loads, and for exploring the basic biology of this important pest. The genome of this species will also serve as a close out-group to Drosophila in comparative genomic studies.

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