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Stem Cells:棕色脂肪干细胞有望治疗糖尿病、肥胖

来源:生物谷 2013-11-23 21:41

2013年11月23日讯 /生物谷BIOON/--肥胖和糖尿病已经成为导致严重心血管疾病的全球性流行病。犹他大学的研究者相信他们最近在成年人体内识别出的一种褐色脂肪干细胞可能成为心脏病及内分泌紊乱的新疗法。由犹他大学临床再生医学和组织工程部主管,医学院心胸外科副教授Patel医生领导的这项研究发布在近期的Stem Cells杂志上。

儿童体内存在大量高活性的棕色脂肪干细胞,使他们摄入大量食物的同时不增加体重,而此前人们普遍认为成年人体内没有此类棕色脂肪干细胞。Patel医生发现成年人体内会生产大量白色脂肪,导致体重上升及心血管疾病,但是棕色脂肪没有这样的作用。随着年龄的增长,人们体内的白色脂肪数量增加,而棕色脂肪数量减少,继而引起糖尿病和高胆固醇。

更太多的棕色脂肪意味着体重减轻,代谢率提高,以及罹患糖尿病和高胆固醇概率的降低。Patel医生和她的合作者们在一群年龄介于28到84岁的病人胸部发现的棕色脂肪干细胞意义深远。他们可以用来帮助识别提高人体自身代谢率的潜在的药物,或者找到直接移植干细胞的方法,例如分离出这些干细胞,培养及增殖后移植入病人体内。

本项研究受到了生物恢复治疗公司的部分支持,并且已在11月22日的脂肪治疗及科学国际联合会(iFATS)的年会中进行了报告。(生物谷Bioon.com)

doi: 10.1002/stem.1595

Metabolically active human brown adipose tissue derived stem cells

Francisco J Silva, Dolly J Holt, Vanessa Vargas, James Yockman, Sihem Boudina, Donald Atkinson, David W Grainger, Monica P Revelo, Warren Sherman, David A Bull, Amit N Patel.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis in mammals. It is characterized by fat vacuoles 5-10 microns in diameter and expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), central to the regulation of thermogenesis. In the human newborn, BAT depots are typically grouped around the vasculature and solid organs. These depots maintain body temperature during cold exposure by warming the blood before its distribution to the periphery. They also ensure an optimal temperature for biochemical reactions within solid organs. BAT had been thought to involute throughout childhood and adolescence. Recent studies, however, have confirmed the presence of active brown adipose tissue in adult humans with depots residing in cervical, supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral and suprarenal regions. While human pluripotent stem cells have been differentiated into functional brown adipocytes in vitro and brown adipocyte progenitor cells have been identified in murine skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, multipotent metabolically active brown adipose tissue derived stem cells from a single depot have not been identified in adult humans to date. Here we demonstrate a clonogenic population of metabolically active brown adipose tissue stem cells residing in adult humans that can: (1) be expanded in vitro; (2) exhibit multi-lineage differentiation potential; and (3) functionally differentiate into metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our study defines a new target stem cell population that can be activated to restore energy homeostasis in vivo for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

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