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Nat Commun:盾皮鱼的自我保护机制

来源:Nature中文网 2013-10-30 11:27

“巨骨舌鱼”(亚马逊流域一种淡水鱼)的鱼鳞内的盘状结构的排列,是其能够保护自己不被“水虎鱼(食人鱼)”咬伤的关键。这一发现发表在本期Nature Communications上。

人们知道,“水虎鱼(食人鱼)”是可怕的攻击者,它们的利齿能夹住猎物,使其丧失能力。某些鱼类进化出了能够避免这种攻击造成死亡的能力:有些形成了能够更快游动的能力,而其他的则长出了坚硬的自然盔甲(以保护性鱼鳞形式存在),后者能吸收咬噬牙齿的撞击力。Robert Ritchie和他的研究小组发现,“巨骨舌鱼”鱼鳞中名为“薄片”(lamellae)的盘状结构的分布使这种鱼能吸收来自一个所施加负荷的能量。他们发现,这种鱼是通过改变“水虎鱼”牙齿所施加高压力的方向、扭转这种压力、并有可能减轻这种压力以及防止自己的鳞片被压碎来做到这一点的。作者得出的结论是,外层“薄片”使鱼鳞具有硬度和抗穿透力,而鱼鳞和“薄片”的波纹状外表面的重叠则使鱼鳞能够以这种方式弯曲,将拉张应力转移给内层的、下层的鱼鳞。(生物谷Bioon.com)

生物谷推荐的英文摘要

Nature Communications       doi:10.1038/ncomms3634

Mechanical adaptability of the Bouligand-type structure in natural dermal armour

Elizabeth A. Zimmermann,Bernd Gludovatz,Eric Schaible,Neil K. N. Dave,Wen Yang,Marc A. Meyers& Robert O. Ritchie

Arapaima gigas, a fresh water fish found in the Amazon Basin, resist predation by piranhas through the strength and toughness of their scales, which act as natural dermal armour. Arapaima scales consist of a hard, mineralized outer shell surrounding a more ductile core. This core region is composed of aligned mineralized collagen fibrils arranged in distinct lamellae. Here we show how the Bouligand-type (twisted plywood) arrangement of collagen fibril lamellae has a key role in developing their unique protective properties, by using in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering during mechanical tensile tests to observe deformation mechanisms in the fibrils. Specifically, the Bouligand-type structure allows the lamellae to reorient in response to the loading environment; remarkably, most lamellae reorient towards the tensile axis and deform in tension through stretching/sliding mechanisms, whereas other lamellae sympathetically rotate away from the tensile axis and compress, thereby enhancing the scale’s ductility and toughness to prevent fracture.

 

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