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The Lancet Oncology:良好生活方式可延缓衰老

来源:科学网 2013-10-21 13:12

人们都知道健康饮食、适量运动对身体有好处。一项最新研究从细胞老化角度进一步证实,保持良好的生活方式,的确能延缓衰老。

据介绍,人体细胞内的染色体上有称作端粒的结构,它好比鞋带两头防止磨损的“保护帽”。人出生时,染色体端粒都有一定长度。随着细胞不断分裂和老化,端粒会慢慢变短。因此,端粒长度被用作判断衰老程度的重要标志。

英国新一期《柳叶刀—肿瘤》杂志刊登美国研究人员的论文说,一项有35名前列腺癌患者参加的长期跟踪研究,在5年的时间里,其中一组志愿者按要求完成饮食、运动、压力调节等全方位的积极改变,另一组作为对照。结果发现,积极作出改变的一组人的端粒长度平均延长了约10%,而对照组则平均缩短了约3%。

研究人员介绍说,这项研究提到的积极生活方式包括:多吃富含果蔬、豆类和谷物的食品,减少碳水化合物和油脂摄入;坚持中等强度的有氧运动,如每天散步半小时;练习瑜伽或进行呼吸训练、冥想等舒缓压力的活动;定期参加心理医生组织的团体性“社会支持”活动等。

领导这项研究的加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校教授迪恩·奥尼什说,虽然这项研究的对象是前列腺癌患者,研究结果应该同样可推及健康男性和女性,即保持健康生活方式可延缓端粒缩短进程。研究人员下一步将开展大规模随机对照研究,进一步确认这一效果。(生物谷Bioon.com)

生物谷推荐的英文摘要

The Lancet Oncology         doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70366-8

Effect of comprehensive lifestyle changes on telomerase activity and telomere length in men with biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer: 5-year follow-up of a descriptive pilot study

Prof Dean Ornish MD a h , Jue Lin PhD b, Prof June M Chan PhD e f, Elissa Epel PhD c, Colleen Kemp RN h, Prof Gerdi Weidner PhD g, Ruth Marlin MD h, Steven J Frenda MA h, Mark Jesus M Magbanua PhD e, Jennifer Daubenmier PhD a, Ivette Estay PhD h, Nancy K Hills PhD f, Nita Chainani-Wu DMD d, Prof Peter R Carroll MD e, Prof Elizabeth H Blackburn PhD b

Background

Telomere shortness in human beings is a prognostic marker of ageing, disease, and premature morbidity. We previously found an association between 3 months of comprehensive lifestyle changes and increased telomerase activity in human immune-system cells. We followed up participants to investigate long-term effects.

Methods

This follow-up study compared ten men and 25 external controls who had biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer and had chosen to undergo active surveillance. Eligible participants were enrolled between 2003 and 2007 from previous studies and selected according to the same criteria. Men in the intervention group followed a programme of comprehensive lifestyle changes (diet, activity, stress management, and social support), and the men in the control group underwent active surveillance alone. We took blood samples at 5 years and compared relative telomere length and telomerase enzymatic activity per viable cell with those at baseline, and assessed their relation to the degree of lifestyle changes.

Findings

Relative telomere length increased from baseline by a median of 0·06 telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S)units (IQR—0·05 to 0·11) in the lifestyle intervention group, but decreased in the control group (0·03 T/S units, 0·05 to 0·03, difference p=0·03). When data from the two groups were combined, adherence to lifestyle changes was significantly associated with relative telomere length after adjustment for age and the length of follow-up (for each percentage point increase in lifestyle adherence score, T/S units increased by 0·07, 95% CI 0·02—0·12, p=0·005). At 5 years, telomerase activity had decreased from baseline by 0·25 (—2·25 to 2·23) units in the lifestyle intervention group, and by 1·08 (—3·25 to 1·86) units in the control group (p=0·64), and was not associated with adherence to lifestyle changes (relative risk 0·93, 95% CI 0·72—1·20, p=0·57).

Interpretation

Our comprehensive lifestyle intervention was associated with increases in relative telomere length after 5 years of follow-up, compared with controls, in this small pilot study. Larger randomised controlled trials are warranted to confirm this finding.

Funding

US Department of Defense, NIH/NCI, Furlotti Family Foundation, Bahna Foundation, DeJoria Foundation, Walton Family Foundation, Resnick Foundation, Greenbaum Foundation, Natwin Foundation, Safeway Foundation, Prostate Cancer Foundation.

 

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