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BMC:“二手烟”增加儿童患脑膜炎风险

来源:新华社 2013-01-20 09:46

英国一项最新研究表明,儿童经常暴露在“二手烟”环境中会显着增加患脑膜炎的风险,研究人员呼吁人们尽量避免在孩子周围吸烟。

英国诺丁汉大学等机构研究人员在新一期《BMC公共健康》杂志上报告说,他们为探索被动吸烟与侵入性脑膜炎球菌病之间的关系而综合回顾了过去十多项相关研究,结果显示,经常暴露在“二手烟”环境中的5岁以下儿童,患侵入性脑膜炎球菌病的风险会是正常情况的两倍以上。

此外,如果母亲在怀孕时曾吸烟,则孩子患侵入性脑膜炎球菌病的风险更高,超出正常情况的三倍以上。

据介绍,侵入性脑膜炎球菌病是导致细菌性脑膜炎的重要原因,这种疾病多发于青少年和婴幼儿中,约二十分之一的患者会死亡,约六分之一的患者即便治愈也会留下神经系统和行为紊乱等方面的后遗症。

研究人员瑞秋·默里说,虽然现在还不完全清楚被动吸烟导致脑膜炎风险增加的具体机理,但本次研究显示两者之间的确存在相关性,因此人们最好尽量避免在家中或其他有孩子在场的情况下吸烟。

默里估计,由于“二手烟”的影响,英国每年会额外增加630个儿童患侵入性脑膜炎球菌病的病例。(生物谷Bioon.com)

Second hand smoke exposure and the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis

Rachael L Murray*, John Britton and Jo Leonardi-Bee

Background Invasive meningococcal disease remains an important cause of serious morbidity and mortality in children and young people. There is a growing body of literature to suggest that exposure to passive smoke may play a role in the development of the disease, therefore we have performed a systematic review to provide a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of this effect for smoking by any household member, by individual family members, and of maternal smoking before and after birth. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CAB Abstracts database) were searched to identify studies (to June 2012) and reference lists scanned for further studies. Titles, abstracts and full texts were checked for eligibility independently by two authors. Quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effect models, with heterogeneity quantified using I2. Results We identified 18 studies which assessed the effects of SHS on the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children. SHS in the home doubled the risk of invasive meningococcal disease (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.92, I2 = 72%), with some evidence of an exposure-response gradient. The strongest effect was seen in children under 5 years (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.51 to 4.09, I2 = 47%). Maternal smoking significantly increased the risk of invasive meningococcal disease by 3 times during pregnancy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.52-5.66) and by 2 times after birth (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.54-3.31). Conclusions SHS exposure, and particularly passive foetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, significantly increases the risk of childhood invasive meningococcal disease. It is likely that an extra 630 cases of invasive meningococcal disease annually in children under 16 are directly attributable to SHS exposure in UK homes.

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