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首页 » J. Biogeogr.:第四纪古环境变化促进东亚鲫鱼复合种的进化

J. Biogeogr.:第四纪古环境变化促进东亚鲫鱼复合种的进化

来源:昆明动物所 2012-12-14 21:52

鲫鱼复合种(Carassius auratus complex)隶属鲤形目鲤科鲫属,是一种广泛分布于欧亚大陆及日本等邻近岛屿的淡水鱼类,其分布受到水域环境的限制,是研究东亚晚第三纪以来重大地质气候环境转型期青藏高原隆升、东亚季风气候、冰期-间冰期交替造成的海陆变化等古环境变化所导致的地理隔离、物种迁移扩散的绝佳材料。

分子进化与进化基因组学研究组的博士生王姝妍在张亚平院士、高云副研究员和云南大学罗静副研究员的指导下,通过对中国大陆、台湾、日本本岛、琉球群岛和俄罗斯等覆盖了该物种全部分布范围的1876个鲫属样品线粒体控制区和细胞色素B基因的系统发育关系和系统地理结构分析,结果显示鲫鱼复合种分为具有明显地理结构的三大类群。其中类群A和B主要分布于日本,类群C主要分布于大陆、台湾及琉球群岛,而类群C中有6个具有明显地域性的亚类群(C1~C6),其中亚类群C1仅分布于福建和越南,是大陆群体中最古老的类群,亚类群C2为主要分布于我国东北和新疆以及俄罗斯的银鲫,C3和C4仅在琉球群岛Tokara gap的南侧和中国大陆东南部(安徽和福建)有分布,C5主要分布于长江中下游,C6为全国广布。系统地理学和群体遗传学分析结果显示,尽管存在少量的人工引种(约占总量的10%),但是现存地理格局主要是受到古环境变化影响的结果。对分歧时间的估算表明,在大约3.0百万年以前,对马海峡间的陆桥消失造成的地理隔离是中国大陆和日本类群间产生分歧的主要原因。随后由于受青藏高原隆升的影响东亚季风逐渐加强,在强大的干冷冬季风的影响下,大陆群体向南退缩至中国东南部的福建和越南,这些地区可能是鲫属鱼类在冰期时的避难所。而日本本岛的较为古老的鲫属类群(A和B)则因为日本岛屿气候环境几乎不受东亚季风影响而被保留了下来。在更新世中期伴随着温暖潮湿夏季风的加强,位于避难所中的大陆群体向北辐射扩散重新占据中国大陆。而冰期-间冰期海平面变化和地质活动使得台湾、琉球群岛和中国大陆东部的陆桥时有形成,东亚鲫鱼通过陆桥连接经台湾扩散到达Tokara gap以南的琉球群岛中南部诸岛。

通过研究鲫鱼复合体物种的分化过程,不仅丰富了对东亚地区物种大尺度分布格局及群体遗传结构及其成因的认识,而且为今后精细解析东亚物种的冰期避难所、迁移扩散路线等提供了重要参考,还可为研究东亚地区物种形成和群体演化规律提供重要线索。该研究结果目前已在线发表于Journal of Biogeography。(生物谷Bioon.com)

 

Quaternary palaeoenvironmental oscillations drove the evolution of the EurasianCarassius auratus complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae)

Yun Gao1,†, Shu-Yan Wang1,2,†, Jing Luo3, Robert W. Murphy1,4, Rui Du3, Shi-Fang Wu1, Chun-Ling Zhu1, Yan Li3, Andrei D. Poyarkov5, Sang Ngoc Nguyen1,6, Peng-Tao Luan3, Ya-Ping Zhang1,3,*

Aim  We sought to reconstruct the spatio-temporal genetic diversification in goldfish of the Carassius auratus complex, which is widely distributed in Eurasia, to test whether vicariance events or human-mediated translocations best explained lineage divergence and genogeographical history. Location  East Asia and the Oriental islands including Japan, the Ryukyus and Taiwan, and Europe, including Russia and the Czech Republic. Methods  We reconstructed the matrilineal history of Eurasian goldfish using 1876 sequences from the partial mitochondrial DNA control region (426 bp) and 191 complete sequences of cytochrome b (1140 bp) from 67 localities representing most of the range of the species. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach based either on molecular clock data or on the fossil record. Genetic structure and the historical demography of populations were analysed using partial correlation tests and analyses of molecular variance. Results  Three lineages had high levels of regional specificity. Lineages A and B from the main islands of Japan differed greatly from lineage C, which occurred on the mainland, Taiwan and the Ryukyus. Lineages A and B had late Pliocene origins. Six geographically constrained sublineages within lineage C had near-simultaneous mid-Pleistocene divergences. Main conclusions  Genetic structure in the C. auratus complex appears to have been driven by palaeoenvironmental perturbations rather than human translocations. The disappearance of a land bridge in the Tsushima Strait around 3.0 Ma is responsible for the separation of Japanese and continental lineages; the estimated divergence time is 2.75–2.32 Ma. Fujian, China and Vietnam appear to have provided important refugia for the C. auratus complex during glaciation. After warm, moist summer monsoons intensified during the mid-Pleistocene, goldfish are likely to have dispersed north-eastwards to recolonize the Ryukyus via Taiwan and northwards to recolonize mainland China.

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