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首页 » 情绪与健康 » Addiction Bio:研究发现吸烟或影响睡眠质量

Addiction Bio:研究发现吸烟或影响睡眠质量

来源:新华网 2012-09-17 21:21

吸烟有害健康毋庸置疑。德国一项最新调查则发现,吸烟者的睡眠时间比不吸烟者少,而且睡眠质量也较差。

睡眠问题多

研究人员对1071名吸烟者做关于睡眠质量的问卷调查,结果显示,其中17%每晚睡眠时间不足6小时,28%称睡眠质量“受到干扰”、较易浅眠。另对1243名不吸烟者所做的同样调查中,上述数据分别为7%和19%。调查对象均无精神病史。

正常情况下,人每晚会有4至5个深睡、浅睡和快速动眼(REM)睡眠的睡眠周期。较深沉的睡眠主要集中在睡眠的初期,快速动眼睡眠主要发生在快醒来时。这样的睡眠模式有助人体控制激素的产生、新陈代谢和压力调节。

路透社援引研究带头人、德国柏林沙里泰医学院斯特凡·科尔斯的话报道:“这项研究首次表明,在没有终身精神疾病的人群中,睡眠紊乱在吸烟者中的比例比不吸烟者高,即使控制了潜在的相关风险因素。”

他说:“如果你吸烟并且遇到睡眠问题,那么你就又多了个戒烟的理由。”

关乎尼古丁

研究报告由最新一期《瘾生物学》发表。

睡眠质量差不仅让人在醒来后精神状态差,一些研究显示,习惯性睡眠质量差还与肥胖、糖尿病、心脏病等健康问题有关。

科尔斯说,他们的研究尚不能证明吸烟直接影响睡眠,因为吸烟者可能还有会对睡眠产生影响的其他习惯,如熬夜、缺少运动等。不过,在综合考虑年龄、体重、是否酗酒等因素后,他们认为,尼古丁的刺激作用仍可能是影响睡眠的罪魁祸首。

这与德国先前一项实验的结论相符。那项实验显示,一夜睡醒后,吸烟者依然困倦的几率是不吸烟者的4倍。研究人员分析指出,这是因为吸烟者夜间睡眠过程中,身体无法获得尼古丁,虽然看似呼呼大睡,实际上睡眠多次被打扰,睡眠质量下降。

亦损害记忆

英国诺森布里亚大学研究人员还发现,长期接触二手烟提高记忆力受损的风险。

他们找来一组吸烟者、一组常接触二手烟的不吸烟者和一组不接触二手烟的不吸烟者接受基于时间或基于事件的记忆力测试。常接触二手烟的调查对象平均每周曝露在二手烟环境下25小时,时间超过4年半。

测试结果显示,吸烟者忘掉的事情比不接触二手烟的不吸烟者多30%,常接触二手烟的不吸烟者忘掉的事情比不接触二手烟的不吸烟者多20%。

研究人员在最新一期《瘾》月刊发表报告说:“我们的研究显示出曝露在二手烟环境与日常认知功能的负面关联。”(生物谷Bioon.com)

Impaired sleep quality and sleep duration in smokers—results from the German Multicenter Study on Nicotine Dependence

Stefan Cohrs, Andrea Rodenbeck, Dieter Riemann, Bertram Szagun, Andreas Jaehne, Jürgen Brinkmeyer, Gerhard Gründer, Thomas Wienker, Amalia Diaz-Lacava, Arian Mobascher, Norbert Dahmen, Norbert Thuerauf, Johannes Kornhuber, Falk Kiefer, Jürgen Gallinat, Michael Wagner, Dieter Kunz, Ulrike Grittner, Georg Winterer

Cigarette smoking is a severe health burden being related to a number of chronic diseases. Frequently, smokers report about sleep problems. Sleep disturbance, in turn, has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathophysiology of several disorders related to smoking and may be relevant for the pathophysiology of nicotine dependence. Therefore, determining the frequency of sleep disturbance in otherwise healthy smokers and its association with degree of nicotine dependence is highly relevant. In a population-based case-control study, 1071 smokers and 1243 non-smokers without lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I disorder were investigated. Sleep quality (SQ) of participants was determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. As possible confounders, age, sex and level of education and income, as well as depressiveness, anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity, alcohol drinking behaviour and perceived stress, were included into multiple regression analyses. Significantly more smokers than non-smokers (28.1% versus 19.1%; P<0.0001) demonstrated a disturbed global SQ. After controlling for the confounders, impaired scores in the component scores of sleep latency, sleep duration and global SQ were found significantly more often in smokers than non-smokers. Consistently, higher degrees of nicotine dependence and intensity of smoking were associated with shorter sleep duration. This study demonstrates for the first time an elevated prevalence of sleep disturbance in smokers compared with non-smokers in a population without lifetime history of psychiatric disorders even after controlling for potentially relevant risk factors. It appears likely that smoking is a behaviourally modifiable risk factor for the occurrence of impaired SQ and short sleep duration.

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