干细胞&iPS

Stem cell:干细胞是一类原始且未特化的多潜能细胞,具有自我复制的能力。在一定条件下,它可以分化成多种功能细胞。 IPS为诱导多能干细胞,是指通过基因转染技术将某些转录因子导入动物或人的体细胞,使体细胞直接重构称为胚胎干细胞细胞样的多潜能细胞。

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首页 » 干细胞&iPS » Stem Cells Trans Med:利用脂肪干细胞更快地培养高质量骨组织

Stem Cells Trans Med:利用脂肪干细胞更快地培养高质量骨组织

来源:生物谷 2012-06-14 00:35

美国加州大学洛杉矶分校科学家们纯化出在脂肪组织中发现的一小部分干细胞,并利用它们制造出骨组织,并且形成的骨组织比利用传统方法培养出的骨组织要更快速而且质量更高。这一发现可能有朝一日消除人们对令人痛苦的骨组织移植的需求。2012年6月11日,相关研究论文在线发表在Stem Cells Translational Medicine期刊上。

论文共同通讯作者、加州大学洛杉矶分校整形和重建外科部门研究副主席Chia Soo博士说,脂肪组织被认为是间充质干细胞的一种理想的来源,能够产生骨、软骨、肌组织和其他组织。同时脂肪组织比较丰富,容易通过诸如吸脂术等方法获得。另一名共同通讯作者为Bruno Péault博士。

Péaul和 Soo领导的研究团队利用一种细胞分选机(cell sorting machine)从脂肪组织中分离和纯化出人血管周干细胞(perivascular stem cells, hPSCs),并且发现这些干细胞要比利用脂肪基质血管组分(stromal vascular fraction,SVF)培养的细胞更好地构建出骨组织。他们还发现一种被称作NELL-1的生长因子在他们的模式动物中能够加强骨组织形成。

在模式动物中,Péaul和 Soo领导的研究团队将hPSCs和NELL-1植入肌袋(muscle pouc)中,其中肌袋通常是不生长骨组织的地方。他们然后利用X射线来确定这些细胞的确产生骨组织。

Soo说,如果一切顺利的话,那么病人可能有朝一日能够快速获得高质量的骨组织移植材料:医生们获得他们的脂肪组织,并且从中纯化出hPSCs,然后将他们自己的干细胞和NELL-1移植到需要骨组织的地方,而在NELL-1存在下,hPSCs有可能在病人体内生长成骨组织。这一过程的目标就是分离出hPSCs,并加入含有NELL-1的基质(matrix)或支架(scaffold)来协助细胞在不到一个小时之内就黏附上来。

Péault说,“令人兴奋的是,最近的研究已经证实利用血管周干细胞来再生不同类型的组织,包括骨骼肌、肺和甚至心肌。进一步的研究将拓展我们的发现,并利用hPSCs的强健性成骨潜能来治愈骨组织缺陷。”(生物谷 Bioon.com)

Perivascular Stem Cells: A Prospectively Purified Mesenchymal Stem Cell Population for Bone Tissue Engineering

Aaron W. James, Janette N. Zara, Xinli Zhang Asal Askarinam, Raghav Goyal, Michael Chiang, Wei Yuan, Le Chang, Mirko Corselli, Jia Shen, Shen Pang, David Stoker, Ben Wug, Kang Ting, Bruno Péault and Chia Soo

Adipose tissue is an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering: it is largely dispensable and readily accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which leads to unreliable bone formation. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from adipose tissue and compared their bone-forming capacity with that of traditionally derived SVF. PSCs are a population (sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) of pericytes (CD146+CD34−CD45−) and adventitial cells (CD146−CD34+CD45−), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we found that PSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation in vitro and formed bone after intramuscular implantation without the need for predifferentiation. We next sought to optimize PSCs for in vivo bone formation, adopting a demineralized bone matrix for osteoinduction and tricalcium phosphate particle formulation for protein release. Patient-matched, purified PSCs formed significantly more bone in comparison with traditionally derived SVF by all parameters. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 increased in vivo bone formation but with a massive adipogenic response. In contrast, recombinant Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL-1; a novel osteoinductive growth factor) selectively enhanced bone formation. These studies suggest that adipose-derived human PSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, PSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy. Finally, NELL-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce human PSC osteogenesis.

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