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Sci Transl Med:微流体装置可测镰状细胞贫血的严重程度

来源:新华网 2012-03-06 15:54

2月29日,发表在美国新一期《科学-转化医学》杂志上的一项研究成果称,美国研究人员日前设计了一种测量血流细微变化的微流体装置,可帮助医生预测镰状细胞贫血的严重性,研究人员已经为这项技术申请了专利。

镰状细胞贫血是一种较常见的遗传性血液疾病,目前全球约有1300万名患者。尽管医学界能轻松诊断这种疾病,但判断其严重程度的方法却不多。

镰状细胞贫血患者体内有一种突变的血红蛋白,它使得红细胞扭曲成镰刀形或月牙形,阻塞或“卡住”毛细血管,进而限制通往器官的血流,造成患者极端疼痛、器官损伤、中风等。有些患者几乎每个月都会经历这些痛苦,而另一些人则多年没有问题。

美国麻省理工学院教授桑吉塔·巴蒂亚等人采集了29名镰状细胞贫血患者的血样,其中23人病情严重,6人病情呈良性,然后将样本放置到微流体装置中。该装置由3个通道层、一个供血液流动的人工毛细血管、一个水化层及一个氧储库组成,可在血液流过通道且镰状细胞被脱氧时测量血流速度的下降。研究人员根据血液流速与驱动血流的压力之间的比率变化,能精确区分出良性与病情严重的患者。

此外,研究人员将一种可以提高血红素与氧气结合能力的实验性药物注入患者血样后,样品在装置中的流动情况得到显著改善。这表明,这一装置还将有助于新药的研发。

研究人员表示,尽管预测镰状细胞贫血严重患者发病的确切时间近乎不可能,但发现高风险者可帮助医生决定谁最需要接受输血或其他治疗。(生物谷 Bioon.com)

A Biophysical Indicator of Vaso-occlusive Risk in Sickle Cell Disease

David K. Wood, Alicia Soriano, L. Mahadevan John , M. Higgins Sangeeta , N. Bhatia

The search for predictive indicators of disease has largely focused on molecular markers. However, biophysical markers, which can integrate multiple pathways, may provide a more global picture of pathophysiology. Sickle cell disease affects millions of people worldwide and has been studied intensely at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organismal level for a century, but there are still few, if any, markers quantifying the severity of this disease. Because the complications of sickle cell disease are largely due to vaso-occlusive events, we hypothesized that a physical metric characterizing the vaso-occlusive process could serve as an indicator of disease severity. Here, we use a microfluidic device to characterize the dynamics of “jamming,” or vaso-occlusion, in physiologically relevant conditions, by measuring a biophysical parameter that quantifies the rate of change of the resistance to flow after a sudden deoxygenation event. Our studies show that this single biophysical parameter could be used to distinguish patients with poor outcomes from those with good outcomes, unlike existing laboratory tests. This biophysical indicator

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