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Dtsch Arztebl Int:磷酸盐添加剂摄入过多会引发健康问题

来源:生物谷 2012-02-19 11:27

磷酸盐是几乎所有食物的天然成分之一,作为重要的食品配料和功能添加剂被广泛用于食品加工中。它是磷酸的盐,在无机化学、生物化学及生物地质化学上是很重要的物质。

目前,我们所食用的大多数快餐食物中都添加了磷酸盐添加剂。游离的磷酸盐会在胃肠道中完全被吸收,早期研究提示磷酸盐会损害血管,加速血管老化进程。

近日,一项刊登在德国国际医学期刊上的文章证实:假如我们过多摄入磷酸盐添加剂的话,我们的健康会受到很大影响。

值得注意的是在肾病患者血清中,磷酸盐浓度会显著增高。该篇论文的相关研究人员回顾了目前有关过度食用磷酸盐后,肾病患者死亡率增加的相关文献,结果表明磷酸盐添加剂对肾病患者健康非常不利。

另外研究人员还强调:磷酸盐的过度食用也和心血管疾病的发病率增高可能有关联。鉴于磷酸盐的这些危害,研究人员呼吁那些含有磷酸盐添加剂的食物应该用标记标示出来,医生和公众都应接受致病危险因素之一的磷酸盐添加剂的相关教育。(生物谷Bioon.com)

Phosphate Additives in Food—a Health Risk

Ritz, E; Hahn, K; Ketteler, M; Kuhlmann, M K; Mann, J

Background: Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated.

Methods: We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases, with the search terms “phosphate additives” and “hyperphosphatemia.”

Results: There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and “fast” food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines.

Conclusion: Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling the content of added phosphate in food are appropriate.

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