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首页 » Evol. Hum. Behav.:嗓音低沉的男性更具领导力

Evol. Hum. Behav.:嗓音低沉的男性更具领导力

来源:新华网 2011-11-16 11:58

想让自己更服众吗?不妨试试用低沉嗓音讲话。加拿大一项研究显示,嗓音低沉的人被认为更具领导力。

加拿大麦克马斯特大学心理学系研究人员找来125名志愿者,给他们播放9位美国总统的存档录音,并把每位总统的声音通过电脑软件处理成高音版和低音版两种版本。

实验对象按要求给每个声音以吸引力、领导潜力、真诚度、智力及支配力等方面打分,最后选出在和平时期或战争时期自己愿意把选票投给他的那个声音。

结果显示,实验对象给出的投票动机各有不同,但低音版以明显优势击败高音版,成为更容易获得“选民”信赖的对象。

第二项实验中,研究人员找来另外40人,给他们听普通男性的声音。结果,实验对象同样把票投给了嗓音低沉的人。

另一项针对1960年至2000年美国总统选举结果的调查也显示,在8次选举中,最后入主白宫的都是嗓音比较低沉的候选人。

研究报告11月14日由《进化与人类行为》杂志发表。麦克马斯特大学心理学系博士生卡拉·蒂格说:“研究显示,投票时,选民会把(候选人的)声音因素考虑进去。”

先前研究显示,嗓音低沉是睾丸激素水平较高的体现。蒂格说,嗓音低沉被视作吸引力和支配力的双重体现,因此在选择领导者时,人们会不由自主地选择嗓音低沉的一方。“进化史上,人类祖先挑选首领尤其重视相关领导力的各种暗示,因为那反映出一个人带领部落生存、繁衍的能力”。

“即使在现代,仍是如此,”她说,以英国前首相、“铁娘子”玛格丽特·撒切尔夫人为例,她接受演讲训练,使自己的嗓音听上去不那么尖利,从而吸引更多选民。

这项研究还显示,相比吸引力,对候选人支配力的感知对于选民作出何种投票决定的影响力更大。

戴维·范伯格教授指导这项研究。他说:“人们认为自己想把选票投给嗓音低沉的人,因为那个人更具吸引力。但那其实是因为选民潜意识中感知到他更具支配力。”

嗓音的奇妙不止于此。麦克马斯特大学心理学、神经学与行为学院博士生吉莉恩·奥康纳的一项研究显示,嗓音低沉的男性和嗓音高的女性更具吸引力。在女性眼中,嗓音低沉的男性欺骗伴侣的可能性较高;而在男性看来,嗓音高的女性对伴侣忠诚度较低。

范伯格2007年对坦桑尼亚哈扎人一项调查则显示,拥有低沉嗓音的男性通常比嗓音高的男性拥有更多子孙。(生物谷 Bioon.com)

Voice pitch influences voting behavior

Cara C. Tiguea, Diana J. Boraka, Jillian J.M. O'Connora, Charles Schandla, David R. Feinberg

It may be adaptive for voters to recognize good leadership qualities among politicians. Men with lower-pitched voices are found to be more dominant and attractive than are men with higher-pitched voices. Candidate attractiveness and vocal quality relate to voting behavior, but no study has tested the influence of voice pitch on voting-related perceptions. We tested whether voice pitch influenced perceptions of politicians and how these perceptions related to voting behavior. In Study 1, we manipulated voice pitch of recordings of US presidents and asked participants to attribute personality traits to the voices and to choose the voice they preferred to vote for. We found that lower-pitched voices were associated with favorable personality traits more often than were higher-pitched voices and that people preferred to vote for politicians with lower-pitched rather than higher-pitched voices. Furthermore, lower voice pitch was more strongly associated with physical prowess than with integrity in a wartime voting scenario. Thus, sensitivity to vocal cues to dominance was heightened during wartime. In Study 2, we found that participants preferred to vote for the candidate with the lower-pitched voice when given the choice between two unfamiliar men's voices speaking a neutral sentence. Taken together, our results suggest that candidates' voice pitch has an important influence on voting behavior and that men with lower-pitched voices may have an advantage in political elections.

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