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Environ. Sci. Policy:系统评估三峡库区生态环境变化

来源:中科院武汉植物园 2011-09-28 09:28

中科院武汉植物园张全发等在《环境科学与政策》(Environmental Science & Policy)上发表了“中国三峡环境变化与减缓行动”的评论文章。该文较系统评估了三峡工程建设以来三峡库区生态环境的变化,并介绍了我国政府应对地区生态环境变化的相关政策和策略。

三峡大坝作为迄今世界上最大的水力发电设施,具有防洪、航运、发电等巨大的综合社会经济效益,但同时对库区生态环境也造成了一定的影响。文章从生物多样性、水环境、消落区、山地等几方面探讨了三峡库区生态环境的变化,并针对生物多样性保护网络构建、污水处理设施建设、消落区综合治理、及库区生态屏障建设等方面,介绍和评估了应对库区生态环境变化的减缓行动。文章认为,三峡库区作为长江流域的关键位置,对我国经济和社会的发展都具有深远的影响,但如何平衡库区社会经济发展与生态环境保护之间的关系,是三峡工程生态安全运行和库区可持续发展所面临的首要问题。最后,该文建议加快库区产业经济结构调整,借鉴外国大型水利设施在工程与生态方面的经验,为三峡库区的环境保护制定适合自身发展的政策和策略。(生物谷 Bioon.com)

The environmental changes and mitigation actions in the Three Gorges Reservoir region, China

Quanfa Zhang , Zhiping Lou

The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is by far the world's largest hydroelectric scheme. Due to its unprecedented magnitude, the TGD has been controversial ever since it was proposed in the early 20th century and building commenced in 1993. Recent problems, including geological disasters (e.g., landslides) in the uplands and algal blooms in the aquatic environment since the reservoir's partial filling to 156 m in 2006, suggest that the environmental challenge has never been greater than now. The environmental deterioration might be further intensified when the reservoir reaches its final water level of 175 m. Solving the environmental challenges will be essential for the sustainable development of the Three Gorges Reservoir region (TGRR), and environmental sustainability in the TGRR is a high priority for the nation considering its critical location in the Yangtze Basin, which contributes 40% of China's GDP. This article reviews primary environmental assessments for biodiversity conservation, the water environment, water level fluctuation zone, and the uplands after the partial filling in the reservoir region. It also discusses the success of mitigation efforts to date. Although there are successes in mitigation particularly in conservation of endangered plants and fishes, it seems likely that environmental conditions in the TGRR could only get worse in the short term. Building a partnership among the TGD stakeholders, including local residents, governments, and international communities is necessary to meet the mounting environmental challenge in the TGRR and beyond.

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