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蚊子变异导致基孔肯雅病毒chikungunya跨地域传播

来源:新华网 2007-12-21 10:05

        基孔肯雅(chikungunya)病毒是一种通过埃及伊蚊传播的病毒,主要存在于非洲大陆。不过美国日前公布的一项研究成果显示,一种变异的蚊子已将这种病毒带到了欧洲、北美等世界其他地区。  

        今年,意大利和法国等欧盟国家以及北美一些地区相继发现了基孔肯雅病毒。美国得克萨斯大学医学分校的科研人员发现,在这些地区大量存在的亚洲虎蚊,由于发生了基因变异,已能够携带这种病毒,因此它们成了传播这种病毒的新“罪魁”。这一研究结果被刊登在最新一期美国《公共科学图书馆·病原体》Plos杂志上。  

        负责这项研究的生物学家斯蒂芬·希格斯指出,基孔肯雅病多在天气炎热、雨水多、蚊患严重的地区流行。他预计,随着全球气候变暖以及蚊虫变异,基孔肯雅病毒跨地域传播的现象将越来越明显。  

        基孔肯雅病毒主要通过蚊子吸血传播,感染者症状包括高烧、呕吐、皮肤起红疹、关节疼痛等。目前尚无有效的疫苗及治疗药物。

相关链接(生物谷注)

美国CDC相关链接:www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/Chikungunya/chikvfact.htm

WHO相关链接:www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section2246.htm

chikungunya病毒介绍

据印度报业托拉斯报道,5月23日,《自然》杂志报告了一种名为chikungunya的病毒,科学家相信,正是这种病毒使印度洋各国的上万居民成为残废。从目前形势看该病毒的蔓延已超过了科学家的预期,有专家警告,该病毒有在全球爆发的可能。

最近的研究报告指出,该病毒最近获得了一次基因突变,更容易被蚊子携带,并进一步传染给人类。目前,从印度到马达加斯加的大部分印度洋国家都出现了感染该病毒的病例。在疫情最为严重的法属留尼汪群岛,自2005年以来,已有近三分之一的居民被感染。

法国巴斯德研究所已着手破译该病毒的DNA序列,目前已了解到该病毒通过破坏人类的神经系统而使人致残,甚至危及生命。

Chikungunya Fever, a re-emerging Disease in Asia

Chikungunya fever, is a viral illness that is spread by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The disease resembles dengue fever, and is characterized by severe, sometimes persistent, joint pain (arthritis), as well as fever and rash. It is rarely life-threatening. Nevertheless widespread occurrence of diseases causes substantial morbidity and economic loss

Epidemiology

Epidemics of fever, rash and arthritis, resembling Chikungunya fever have been recorded as early as 1824 in India and elsewhere. However, the virus was first isolated between 1952-1953 from both man and mosquitoes during an epidemic of fever that was considered clinically indistinguishable from dengue, in the Tanzania.

Chikungunya fever displays interesting epidemiological profiles: major epidemics appear and disappear cyclically, usually with an inter-epidemic period of 7-8 years and sometimes as long as 20 years. After a long period of absence, outbreaks of CHIK fevers have appeared in Indonesia in 1999.

Chikungunya in Asia (1960-1982)

Between 1960 and 1982, outbreaks of Chikungunya fever were reported from Africa and Asia.  In Asia, virus strains have been isolated in Bangkok in 1960s; various parts of India including Vellore, Calcutta and Maharastha in 1964; in Sri Lanka in 1969; Vietnam in 1975; Myanmar in 1975 and Indonesia in 1982.

Recent occurrences of chikungunya fever

After an interval of more than 20 years, chikungunya fever has been reported from several countries including India, and various Indian Ocean islands including Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion and Seychelles.

Chikungunya fever in India

Till 10 October 2006, 151 districts of eight states/provinces of India have been affected by chikungunya fever. The affected states are Andhra Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala and Delhi.

More than 1.25 million cases have been reported from the country with 752,245 cases from Karnataka and 258,998 from Maharashtra provinces. In some areas attack rates have reached up to 45%.

Chikungunya and dengue fevers

The clinical manifestations of chikungunya fever have to be distinguished from dengue fever. Co-occurrence of both fevers has been recently observed in Maharashtra state of India thus highlighting the importance of strong clinical suspicion and efficient laboratory support.    

Laboratory Diagnosis

The clinical manifestations of chikungunya fever resemble those of dengue fever. Laboratory diagnosis is critical to establish the cause of diagnosis and initiate specific public health response.

Treatment, prevention and control

Treatment

Chikungunya fever is not a life threatening infection. Symptomatic treatment for mitigating pain and fever using anti-inflammatory drugs along with rest usually suffices. While recovery from chikungunya is the expected outcome, convalescence can be prolonged (up to a year or more), and persistent joint pain may require analgesic (pain medication) and long-term anti-inflammatory therapy.

Prevention and control

No vaccine is available against this virus infection. Prevention is entirely dependent upon taking steps to avoid mosquito bites and elimination of mosquito breeding sites.

To avoid mosquito bites:

     Wear full sleeve clothes and long dresses to cover the limbs;

     Use mosquito coils, repellents and electric vapour mats during the daytime;

     Use mosquito nets – to protect babies, old people and others, who may rest during the day. The effectiveness of such nets can be improved by treating them with permethrin (pyrethroid insecticide). Curtains (cloth or bamboo) can also be treated with insecticide and hung at windows or doorways, to repel or kill mosquitoes.

     Mosquitoes become infected when they bite people who are sick with chikungunya. Mosquito nets and mosquito nets and mosquito coils will effectively prevent mosquitoes from biting sick people.

To prevent mosquito breeding

The Aedes mosquitoes that transmit chikungunya breed in a wide variety of manmade containers which are common around human dwellings. These containers collect rainwater, and include discarded tires, flowerpots, old oil drums, animal water troughs, water storage vessels, and plastic food containers. These breeding sites can be eliminated by

      Draining water from coolers, tanks, barrels, drums and buckets, etc.;

      Emptying coolers when not in use;

      Removing from the house all objects, e.g. plant saucers, etc. which have water collected in them

      Cooperating with the public health authorities in anti-mosquito measures.

Role of public health authorities

     National programme for prevention and control of vector borne diseases should be strengthened and efficiently implemented with multisectoral coordination

     Legislations for elimination of domestic/peridomestic mosquitogenic sites should be effectively enforced

     Communities must be made aware of the disease and their active cooperation in prevention and control measures elicited  

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